Manx Language Stuff
|Changes that all three lenition types do|
|b > v; boo, bw > v or w|
f > Ø
g > gh; gi > ghi or yi
k > ch
m > v; mw, moo > v or w
p > ph
qu > wh
|Type I||Type II||Type III|
|s > h
sh > h
sl > l
shl > l
sn > n
str > hr
çh > h
d, dh > gh
j > y
t, th > h
|s > t
sh > çh
sl > cl (or tl—rare)
sn > tn (rare)
str > tr
shl, çh, d, dh, j, t, and th do not change.
|Type III includes only the changes above.|
In many languages, maybe even most, counting is a fairly straightforward thing. So is putting a noun after a number—you just put the noun in the plural and you're done with it. Manx is much more complicated.
The information below comes from Practical Manx by Jennifer Kewley Draskau and First Lessons in Manx by Edmund Goodwin (revised by Robert Thomson).
Here are the cardinal numbers with pronunciations mostly from Wiktionary:
Manx is a base-20 system like French. 'Twenty-one' is 'nane as feed, 'twenty-two' is daa as feed, and 'thirty-one' is 'nane-jeig as feed. ('Thirty' is jeih as feed.) This system is used up to fifty-nine.
'Forty' is two twenties—daeed (=daa feed). 'Sixty' is tree feed. 'Eighty' is kiare feed. 'One hundred' is keead.
Kewley Draskau says that from sixty until ninety-nine the word order is changed. The twenties are put first: kiare feed as jees is 'eighty-two'. This is a distinction that Goodwin doesn't make. For him, eighty-two would presumably be jees as kiare feed.
And now the fun begins. If you use a noun, the noun usually gets wedged in between the first chunk of number and all the rest. So 'fifty three boats' is tree baatyn jeig as daeed. Do not separate the noun incorrectly and get the wrong number: tree baatyn as feed 'twenty-three boats' but tree feed baatey 'sixty boats'.
Un (Type III) and daa (Type I) cause lenition. After un, nouns are lenited except for nouns beginning with dentals (t-, d-, çh-, and j-): un vac, but un dooinney. After daa, everything is lenited: daa vac, daa ghooinney.
As can be seen by the examples above, the singular is used if daa, feed, daeed, tree feed, kiare feed, keead, or thousane precedes the nouns.
Ordinals:1st yn chied
All ordinals cause lenition. After chied, nouns beginning with a dental are not lenited. Note that only the first element of a compound ordinal is in the ordinal form: yn chied jeig as feed 'thirty-first'.
Note also the use of keayrt 'a time, turn': un cheayrt 'once', daa cheayrt 'twice', tree keayrtyn 'thrice', etc...
Manx Irregular Verbs [Because I can never remember these...]
|Verbal Noun||Present Tense||Future Tense1, 2||Past Tense||Conditional1||Imperative||Past Participle|
|ve /vi/, /ve/ 'be'||ta3 /ta/, /te/||vel /vel/, nel /nel/4||bee'm or beeym /bim/|
|bee'm or beeym|
|va6 /va/||row7 /rau/||veign /vi:ən/|
|beign /bi:dn/, ?/bi:ən/|
|jannoo /'dʒinu/, /'dʒenu/ 'do, make'||ta mee jannoo, etc...||vel or nel mee jannoo, etc...||nee'm or neeym /n´i:m/|
jean /dʒin/, /dʒen/
jeanmayd /'dʒinməd/, /'dʒenməd/5
|jean /dʒin/, /dʒen/ (sing.)|
|çheet /tʃit/, /tʃɛt/10|